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  • Dr. Paurnima Bodhankar

What is Diabetic Retinopathy?


A medical disorder called diabetic retinopathy affects diabetics and results from blood vessel damage to the retina. If a person has type 1 or type 2 diabetes and a protracted history of uncontrolled elevated blood sugar levels, diabetic retinopathy may develop. The management and duration of diabetes affect the amount of retinal impairment. Although a diabetic may initially only experience minor vision issues, they are nonetheless capable of going blind.


Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy:

Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NDPR) :

The retinal blood vessel walls weaken and swell in this more prevalent variety, which is also known as "early diabetic retinopathy." The smaller vessels occasionally develop tiny bulges (micro aneurysms) that protrude from their vessel walls and leak fluid and blood into the retina. Larger retinal vessels may also start to enlarge. Because more blood vessels are congested, NDPR may worsen and the retina's nerve fibers may start to bulge. Macular edema, a disorder that calls for treatment, can occasionally cause the macula, the center region of the retina, to enlarge. NDPR might develop into Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy if untreated.


Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR) :

Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is a more severe form of diabetic retinopathy in which damaged blood vessels close off, causing the development of new, abnormal blood vessels in the structurally fragile retina. If these blood vessels rupture, blood may leak into the clear, jelly-like substance that fills the center of the eye (vitreous).

The retina may eventually separate from the back of the eye as a result of scar tissue that is induced by the development of new blood vessels. The eyeball may become pressurized if the new blood vessels obstruct the usual drainage of fluid from the eye. This may harm the optic nerve, which transmits pictures from the eye to the brain, and cause glaucoma.


Symptoms of Diabetic Retinopathy:

Diabetic retinopathy doesn't show any symptoms until there has been significant internal eye damage. By controlling blood sugar levels and undergoing routine eye exams to check eye health, hidden harm can be avoided.


Symptoms can include: • Seeing floaters or dark spots • Objects appear bent or slanting (metamorphosis) • Blurred vision • Sudden loss of vision • Difficulty in distinguishing colors


Did You Know?

In India, diabetes affects 69.2 million individuals, half of whom have an undiagnosed form of the disease. Long-term, this has negative effects on a number of other organ systems in addition to the body's blood sugar levels. The eye ailment known as diabetic retinopathy is one of the most disabling effects of diabetes.



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